Abstract ......................................................................................................................1 内容摘要....................................................................................................................1 Introduction ........................................................................... 错误！未定义书签。 1. The Theme Analysis of The Bear ....................................... 错误！未定义书签。 1.1 Alienation of the relationship between Human and Nature ............................5 1.2. The Theme of Ethics ......................................................................................7 2. Interpretation of The Bear from the Perspective of Ecological Ethics ..................9 2.1 An Introduction to Ecological Ethics Theory .................................................9 2.2 Alienation and Pursuit of Ethical Identity ................................................... 10 2.3 Moral Anxiety under the Condition of Ethical Constraints............................11 3. The Influence of Faulkner's Ethics and Its Implication ... 1 错误！未定义书签。 3.1 Building Spiritual Home for Ecological Harmony .....................................14 3.2 Constructing Ethical Environment of Freedom and Equality .......................15 Conclusion ........................................................................... 1 错误！未定义书签。 References ................................................................................................................19
威廉.福克纳小说《熊》的主题意蕴与生态伦理解读 Interpretation of The Bear from the Perspective of Ecological Ethics and Its Thematic Implications
William Faulkner was the foremost southern writer of 20th century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1950. The bear, one of Faulkner's "Wilderness Trilogy", which was hailed as one of the best stories in 20th century. It seems at first the tale of a boy learning to hunt, but beneath the simple story lies the “old universal truth” -- courage, honor, hope, pride, sympathy, comparison and sacrifice. The theme concealed in The Bear were drawn attentions from a great many scholars at home and abroad, who mostly focus on the southern history, the image of ?Bear?, racial discrimination, narrative perspective and the stream of consciousness techniques. However, fewer researches in viewpoint of ecological ethics have been done to interpret the novel. This essay is to explore the relationship between man and nature as well as civilization and wilderness based on the theory of ecological ethics. It intends to conclude that the bear is a symbol called for natural consciousness and social morality. A concrete analysis of the theme of”The Bear” indicates that the importance of keeping the harmonious relationship between human and nature and its significance to the present society. This thesis consists of five chapters. The chapter one gives an introduction for William Faulkner and his works, and reviews the previous studies on The bear, then presents the objective and significance of the thesis. Chapter Two briefly introduce the theme. Chapter Three analyzes the relationship between the wilderness and civilization from the perspective of ecological ethics. Chapter Four discusses the its the influence and enlightenment of “The bear” in modern society. Chapter Five summaries the main results of the research. Key Words： The Bear; theme; ecological ethics
威廉· 福克纳是 20 世纪美国南方文学最具影响力的作家之一。 1950 年， 他被授 予诺贝尔文学奖。 《熊》是福克纳所著的森林三部曲中的一部，被誉为 20 世纪最著 名的中篇小说。这部小说的所描述的不仅是艾萨克的成长经历，而是美国、整体人 类的未来。它让我们看到了“人类心灵深处从远古以来就存有的真实情感” ，这亘古 不变的真理就是： “勇气、荣誉、希望、尊严、怜悯之心和栖牲精神” 。 《熊》的丰富内涵和创作特点一直以来备受学者们的关注，主要从以下四个方 面进行探究：南方历史，种族歧视，叙事话语以及意识流技巧。而本文是从生态伦 理的视角去解读这部小说的内涵意义，进一步探讨人与自然，文明与荒野之间的关 系。从而揭示熊是一种自然意象，它呼唤着自然意识和社会道德的觉醒。通过分析， 还揭示出人与自然和谐关系的重要性以及生态批评对现代社会的启示意义。 本文分为五个部分，第一章主要介绍了作者和作品，以及作品的相关研究。第 二章简要介绍了主题意义。第三章从文学伦理学批评的视角出发，解读了《熊》中 体现的伦理主题。第四章论述了福克纳的伦理思想对当今社会的深刻启示。结尾部 分总结研究结果，指出作品的主题蕴意和作者生态伦理观。 关键词: 《熊》; 主题蕴意; 生态伦理观
Faulkner is one of representative American writers of modernism in the 20 th century. He gives a detailed portrait of social crisis and contradictions existed in the American south at that time, and presents nearly two hundred years of social historical reality. Faulkner made a lifetime to create 19 novels and nearly one hundred of short novels. All his novels are set in Yoknapatawpha County, the unique form of artistic expression and the profound connotation won the world recognition. He won the Nobel prize for literature in 1950. Faulkner's writing career starts from the first poem The Marble Faun with a purely aesthetic sense in 1924, and ends with the last novel Predators in 1962. His creative career spanned the four decades. Faulkner's creation process passed through the changes in two period. It is worthwhile to note that The bears created at a significant transforming period. From 1924 to 1936, Faulkner's earlier works shows flashes of tragedy. He is pessimistic about the living environment for human, especially conspicuous such works as The Sound and Fury(1929), As I Lay Dying(1930), The Temple(1931), Absalom, Absalom!(1936) in his golden age. Faulkner created many unforgettable characters in his novels such as American Southern fade aristocrats, poor whites, the emerging ambitious capitalist. People from all social strata were enveloped in violence, murder, incest and
the shadow of death, and suffocating themselves with the pessimistic social order chaos and social environment. In the mid late period of in Faulkner's career(1936-1962), there were signs of optimism in his works. He believes that human beings can break off the dark reality and realize "immortal" through their own hard work. As he stated at the awards ceremony “I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail.
He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but bec ause he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance.” In this period, he creates characters such as poor whites and blacks, who confront future with optimism in such works as Go Down, Moses(1942), Intruder in the Dust(1948), ect, which also reveal that the writer was very optimistic about the development of human society. However, The Bear, one of the most important chapters in the novel collection
Go Down,Moses, which reflects optimistic tone of Faulkner's later works and takes the distinctive position in the serial novel of Yoknapatawpha. What is noteworthy is that many of Faulkner's works are the modified versions of the published short stories in his earlier career. His works were very well-knit. Some of his short novels, went through many revisions, published as a collection of short stories. The bear，as one part of the novel collection Go Down, Moses, published in 1942. Soon after,The Saturday Evening Post published The Bear, its short story was created in 1941,while through ceaseless additions and refinements, the novelette The Bear was recognized by the critics. The Bear is the focus and highly appreciated in academic circle. Scholars states "it is the key to interpret all of Faulkner's works". The novel also is the milestone in Faulkner's whole writing career. The following section presents a review of the relevant literature, which includes the theme of the novel and author biography. (1) the theme of the novel The Bear contains two themes.: the wilderness (mainly in first, 2, 3 and 5 chapters) and race relations (mainly in Chapter fourth). Research direction of critics mainly include the following 7 aspects: Faulkner's attitude to the relationship between man and nature; An ecological interpretation of The Bear; the exploration of Faulkner's moral values view; the racial relations between blacks and whites; an analysis of protagonist Isaac McCaslin's thought; comparative study of "bear" and other works; Faulkner's experiences has impact on the creation of The Bear. The relationship between man and nature in The Bear has been the hot topic. Robert Penn Warren in his essays William Faulkner, Forms of Modern Fiction maintains that Faulkner links "correct attitude to nature" with "correct attitude to human". This is an important aspect about the relationship between man and nature. Kenneth Labudde states in his Cultural Primitivism in William Faullcner's "The Bear" that Faulkner considered civilization as evil, and Isaac McCaslin find truth in the wilderness of primitivism. Recently, ecological ethics has recently become a focus, Ecological interpretations of The Bear have obtained lots of achievements, such as W. F. Clayto "Go Down”, and the Discourse of Environmentalism did a comparative study of The Bear and Faulkner ?s other works He hold that the consciousness of environmental
protection in this novel reflected ecological environmental movement in the USA in the 30s and 40s. Thomas L. Mchamey in the thesis "The Ecology of Uncle Ike:Teaching Go Down, Moses with.Ianisse Ray's Ecology of a Cracker Childhood", based on the (Home Economics) theory proposed by Wendell Berry, points out and development of natural preservation and the economy are not antagonists but complement to each other and mutually beneficial. Moreover, He criticizes Isaac McCaslin?s irresponsible behaviour for forsaking land. Faulkner's works were filled with the sense of moral. The Bear is a typical novel，in which a great contrast between good and evil has manifested writer moral values. There are three representative essays discussed The Bear reflected the theme of moral. R. W. B. Lewis in the classical essay The Hero in the New World Faulkner 's "The Bear " commented favorably on the theme of moral reflected in The Bear. He pointed out, in Faulkner's The Bear, have described the evil was surrounded and annexed by people's nature and positive force, which was further emphasized than any other novels. Through learning the virtues in wilderness Isaac McCaslin the recognized the crime was committed by the ancestors and modern civilization for black, natural wrongdoings, and firmly decided to abandon the property for sin, and found the Old Ben has the almost mystical virtue. The reviewer also affirmed the Isaac McCaslin follow Jesus's behavior and his moral and spiritual rebirth. John W. Hunt in his Morality with Passion: A Study of "The Bear" that it tells the myth story of human morality and the freedom and denies that Isaac abandoned his own responsibility. Cleanth Brooks in Faulkner's Vision of Good and Evil confirmed the sacrifice and redemption under the presupposition of Christian environment and Faulkner's humanitarian spirit. (2) author biography Many commentators consider "The Bear" embodies the writers experience and ideological work its fullest extent. Therefore, the combination of the creation and the writer's life experience also become the research objective. Margaret M. Dunn, in her essay the Illusion of Freedom in The Hamlet and Go Down, Moses, combines the writer's life experience with "The Bear" works,and holds that this role Isaac McCaslin refracted Faulkner's aspiration for freedom. In Touching Race in Go Down, Moses, Judith Sensiba
analyzed the relationship between Faulkner and the black Caroline Barr who took care of Faulkner ?s daily life and pointed out that the role of the black was closely related to Faulkner's life experience. "The Bear" as Faulkner ?s most famous short story, which has drawn more attention from the researchers. Regarding the large amount of relevant papers (including journals and thesis) involved Wilderness Trilogy and Go Down, Moses, which can be classified into the following aspects: the ecological theme, archetypal criticism, religious redemption and narrative art. Many researchers profoundly interpret "The Bear" based on the writer's life experience and the background, the biography and speech. In the twenty years from 1979 to 1999, China scholars mainly research the "bear" from the aspects of theme and language style. For example, Chen Kai's Analysis of Linguistic Style of Faulkner's Short Novel" The Bear", which studied language style in The Bear from the vocabulary, metaphor and syntax. In 20
Century, ecological thought
in The Bear has aroused scholars' attention. Some scholars pointed out that the relation with Taoist?s “ the harmony between the heaven and man” happened to coincide with the relationship between nature and human in the wilderness. Wu Yueming in"on Faulkner's ecological ethics" promoted the relationship between man and nature to the level of ethics, which reveals the ethical conflicts of man and nature in the process of society transition from agricultural civilization to capitalism industrial civilization in American south, and reflects his prospective ecological ethics. From the above research situation, we can see "The Bear" attracts much attention at home and abroad, especially on the ecological consciousness. This is mainly because recently the ecological literature has become hot topic.
Chapter One The Theme Analysis of The Bear
1.1 Alienation of the relationship between Human and Nature In the modern literature, the wilderness has a profound cultural connotation. In regard to American literature, the combination of environment and history is endued with meanings in the form of story. Nature is a dominant theme in the short novel "The Bear" , in which the wilderness has become the cradle of virtue. The Revised version deepened the theme that the wilderness is opposed to civilization. The Bear is clearly trying to reveal the fact: the capitalism industrial civilization has caused the degeneration of human nature, and the pursuit of nature and the return to Innocence has became a way of self - salvation when human were in spirit crisis. Faulkner ?s concern about the vanish of wilderness reflects he can sees clearly the great social change in American south at the beginning of twentieth Century. Particularly, in the fifth section of The Bear, when the train entered the forest, animal lose habitat, in which described vividly America social situation in the nineteenth Century when the emergent capitalist industrial civilization undermine the long-term harmonious relationship between human and the nature, then resulted in ecological crisis. This novel is the most convincing declaration related to the wilderness and it most profoundly depicts the change of balance between man and nature in American history. The novelette The bear begins with the additional sentence, which directly reflects the author ?s attitude about the nature and industrial civilization. Only Sam and Old Ben and the mongrel Lion were taintless and incorruptible. (1942:1) The wilderness is the birthplace of virtue, where the laws of nature is on behalf of the highest ethical standard. Influenced by the natural law, the soul of Sam, Old Ben and the lion are purely good. The history of mankind is the process that they conquer nature,and then create highly developed material civilization. However, people's spiritual civilization are not synchronized with the development of material civilization. In contrast, the emergence of private ownership inflated the evil of human nature. Driven by the greed, the conquest of nature, the possession of the land and oppressive alien indicate human lost the pristine and beauty of nature. The Bear have done a comparison vividly
and profoundly between the virtue in wildness and social civilization. The critics Robert Pani Warren maintains the theme in the novel can be classified into the wilderness theme contained in the first 2, 3 and 5 sections and race relations in the fourth section, and the whole story links "the correct attitude to the nature" and "the correct attitude to the human" together, expressing Faulkner's important views about the relationship between man and nature. In the beginning of short story "The Bear", the writer briefly discusses the legendary image of the Old Ben in children' mind before entering the forest, and switches directly the screen to the scene that the children first heard the cry when hounds were chasing prey in the woods. However, the same plot, added in a paragraph in the novelette The Bear, namely, the children first rode into the forest, the nature brought the intuitive feelings to them. This is only a section about the positive description of wilderness.
Dwarfed by that perspective into an almost ridiculous diminishment, the itself seemed to have ceased to move, as a solitary small boat hangs in lonely immobility, merely tossing up and down. (2005:124) Isaac began to realize the forest is grand and great and entered the land with such awe. Due to his humility and respect, Isaac decided to abandon their own cowardice and grow up very soon. For Isaac, nature inspired his soul like mother. As in the fifth section, Isaac, the eighteen year old, back to the forest, in which the writer described: “It is the nature that he will soon become an adult, If you can really say who makes him grow up. ” Thereby, we can see that Faulkner's view of nature that nature is mysterious, invincible and an object of more admiration. Returning to nature has become an important way that human build noble character. In the novelette The bear,when Isaac was searching for Old Ben in the forest , he began to understand the opposite relationship between the natural and human civilization. Isaac has looked for the Old Ben in the forest alone for nine hours, and finally he realized only discarding shotgun is not enough, he also has a watch and compass. The plot in the two article "The Bear" has appeared, but the rewriting strengthened writers critique intention.
It was the watch, the compass, the stick-the lifeless mechanicals with which for nine hours he had fended the wilderness off. It was the watch and the compass. He was still tainted. The short story "The Bear" manifests industrial civilization is incongruous with wilderness , and the novelette The bear enhanced this opposition. Wilderness becomes the subject of existing products, and the productions originated from civilized world polluted the pure and noble wilderness. It can be seen Faulkner has a deep-seated hatred for the invasion of northern industrial civilization wilderness. 1.2 The Theme of Ethics No matter what is the short novel or the novelette , the image of Sam Fazes is mostly built by guiding Isaac to hunt. But in the novelette "The Bear", the image of Sam become more mysterious, he deeply understood the natural rules. When the hunting team wrongly took the crimes committed by "the lion" as the Old Ben did, Sam not only clearly knew what kind of beast was and expected the Old Ben finally met the opponent. Then he can follow the Old Ben. The symbolic description of the Sam Fazes's appearance not only shows Sam's invisible influence on Isaac and also highlight The Bear praise the natural virtues and critique racial Institution. In the "Ancient Tribal", Faulkner describes Sam Fazes's growth experience, the temperament and character in detail. As Indian chieftains' descendant, although a small amount of Black ancestry made him lost his freedom, but slavery identity did not change his innate noble qualities. He still maintained a good gene derived from Indian ' ancestors. "His dignity and self-confidence, honesty and kindness, will and endurance,and harmonious with nature reveal he is like 'the noble savage Rousseau praised. At the same time, he also gained the master's respect. Faulkner created the role of Indian who is independence. He breaks the deformed relationship between the master and slave in American South. It is possible that relations between the races toward a bright development, and also presents that human nature is influenced by the nature. Returning to nature and tradition becomes a correct way to deal with the social relationship.
Sam always maintains mystical relationship with nature, he told the story of the forest to Isaac. In fact, it is qualified that Sam is asked to be Isaac's the supervisor for the knowledge of forest. American poet Gary Snyder said, as for Indian culture, all life comes from nature, nourished and kept from the earth. The heart of human once away from nature, it would be harden. Who breaks off the nature rule, human nature will be hindered. The writer is in accordance with the above requirements to shape the son of nature. Sam lived alone and almost keep no contact with others except Isaac. He
expresses his complex affection by eyes. The writer carried out detailed description of Sam's eyes from the point of view of Isaac, aims to highlight the eyes impressed Isaac. The mysterious and awesome look brought the children more spiritual shock. what The Bear repeatedly described is the symbolic meaning hidden behind the eyes. It concludes that The Bear calls for natural consciousness and social morality
Chapter Two Interpretation of The Bear from the Perspective of Ecological Ethics
Faulkner's short story "The Bear" is about hunting. It reflects not only the harmony between man and nature, but also the conflict between human and nature in the modern civilization development. This chapter will interpret the conflict between human and nature from the perspective of ecological ethics, aim to enlighten the human spirit and accelerate the development of environmental protection, to achieve harmony between man and nature. 2.1 An Introduction to Ecological Ethics Theory Since the twentieth Century, human has been bedeviled by various ecological and environmental problems, who began to re-examine the relationship between man and nature and ecology. With the emergence of ecological thoughts, ecological criticism also came into being in the field of literature. In the latter half of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, ecological ethics was created in America. So far, ecological criticism has many definitions. However, the most acceptable term was defined by Cheryll Glotfelty: "ecological criticism is to explore the relationship between nature and literature ".
Ecological criticism theory is based on the ecological philosophy. The main idea of Western civilization believe in human-centered,namely, control, transformation and the conquest of nature. From thirteenth Century to fifteenth Century, the continent has "ideological nature of the Renaissance sprung up in Europe, in which the essence is Humanism. Humanists think that man is the center of the universe, human beings have the ability to change the world and enjoy their transformation. Undoubtedly, this idea is also manifests the principle of human-center. In the 18th and 19th Century, with the rising trend of philosophy thought and romantic literature, returning to nature and harmonious consciousness with becomes the mainstream of thought. The core idea of ecological ethics is the ecological organicism. Ecological criticism also is the main characteristics.
the central idea of ecological organicism is taking the whole interest of ecology system as the highest value but not taking the human interest as the highest value. it is conducive to maintain and protect the integrity, harmony, stability, balanced and persistent existence of ecosystem as a fundamental measure of all things, as the ultimate criterion for judging the human way of life, the progress of science and technology, economic growth and social development. The objective of ecological criticism aims to appeal to human beings to protect the nature live in harmony with nature. In the twentieth Century, the literary genius Faulkner's short story "the bear" is called as the greatest hunting novels in American history. "The Bear" is about a group of hunters battled with the Old Bear in the wilderness. At the end of the novel, this group of hunters use knives and guns to kill the representative of the nature，which symbolize not only their so-called wisdom and modern civilization,, but also they entered into the modern civilization from primitive wilderness society. The old bear thinks, although human do not fear nature like before for scientific and technological strength, human must establish a harmonious relationship with nature if they want to obtain the inner spiritual and psychic balance. The tension relationship between man and nature will aggravate the conflict between people. Faulkner's short story "The Bear" is about a hunting story, which not only reflects the harmony between man and nature, but also the conflict between human and nature in modern civilization development. 2.2 Alienation and Pursuit of Ethical Identity Isaac McCaslin has a dual identity of ethics in the novelette "The Bear", with two diametrically opposite ethical nature: justice and evil. On the one hand, Isaac McCaslin is the offspring of the manor lord and the successor of the evil immoral heritage. On the other hand, he was the indefatigable defender of the wildness virtue. Isaac McCaslin was growing up and making moral choices under the condition of questioning the two ethical identities. As the heir of McCaslin family, the blood relationship made Isaac McCaslin has the sense of family identity and belonging. However, as the pursuer of the supremacy of moral, he made questioning and introspection on the ethical identity when ancestors accumulate wealth by unfair means and ethical chaos. Finally, he made an ethical choice
according to his inner moral standard. In the novelette "The Bear", due to Isaac McCaslin's social identity, he became the only legitimate inheritor among McCaslin offspring. As he reached maturity, he could inherit a fortune and land, and set up for life with his wife like the other farmers. However, in fact, later he gave up superior social position and rich heritage, and then he lost the rights of being a father. His final selection was living alone in a small wooden house in the forest. McCaslin's growth experience in the forest let him out of the bias of social class. He could observe the ancestors' behaviors from the objective and reasonable perspective. Isaac McCaslin realized that his family was destined for an inevitable decline from the start, because wealth accumulation is not based on the justice of moral standard. Once the family descendants gradually realize immoral way of acquiring wealth, the guilty made them upset. The old Carothers obtained land by a deceptive and dishonest way. Making profits itself is a difficult time for Indians. The slave owners reaped huge profits by squeezing the slaves. While in the McCaslin family, incest incident was admissible under the institution of slavery. In the land, the southern legend was set up.
As mentioned in the novel, the record not only includes McCaslin family history, but represents the epitome of Southern history. McCaslin as beneficiaries of economic system in the South, they subversed the traditional social hierarchy。The restless people in the large family discard abandoned property and lived a hard life, this behavior itself is a shocking. The virtues makes Isaac McCaslin realize the moral limitations of their own hierarchy in the chaotic environment. Freedom and equality has been gone deep into Isaac McCaslin?s mind. This thought is not the denial of the slave system itself, but also the negation of their social identity. McCaslin began to introspect the slavery system that distorted human nature. 2.3 Moral Anxiety under the Condition of Ethical Constraints During the period of creating The Bear, namely, the age of existentialism. Faulkner has publicly denied that his creation was affected by Sutter's existentialism. Undoubtedly, writers began to have more optimistic views for human in his later works. At that time, he was concerned with the ordinary people's awakening for the evil world.
He also thought the independence and responsibility are the important ways to reform the world, which corresponds with Sutter's existentialism. The most important point in Sutter's philosophy is "existence precedes essence", so the people's action has absolute freedom. Another question is human responsibility that a person is free to choose when he is making a choice and recommending his choice to others. Therefore, he must bear
the responsibility for all the consequences. Sutter's ideology has changed in his late works. He focused more on the macro- level. He also began to admit that, there is no absolute freedom in the world. However, The Bear expresses Faulkner's attitude and expectation for free choice of ordinary people. It is the ultimate expectation of Faulkner's creation. He hopes to human can make positive choices and realize self - salvation. Isaac McCaslin inherited the traditional virtues of the South, which made him aware of the irrationality of slavery. To some extent, he is the successor and incarnation of the faded south of traditional virtue. Faulkner rest his own ideal on Isaac. But we can still find Faulkner ?s unrevealed criticism on this role after a close reading of the novel. Although Isaac McCaslin realized the unreasonableness of social system in the south, he abandoned his own responsibilities. Such a negative attitude is what the writer criticized. In Faulkner's opinion, morality is an important way to solve the dilemma. The Bear explores the spiritual world by describing Isaac McCaslin's thoughts. What "The Bear" expresses is the process of cognition: understanding of evil. The Bear fully analyzedthe unreasonable social system and the problems left over by history,which aims to explore the direction of the future development. Faulkner's works are full of murder, violence, incest and death, What he wants to express is not a despised and despair attitude on the reality but a hope that arousing people's vigilance through the real description. Eventually, their living conditions will be improved. In The Bear, Faulkner created this beautiful moral scene to manifest his moral ideal and achieve the salvation.of human morality. Faulkner's novel lies great stress on morality. As the racial and historical predicament in the South Society, he appealed to the southerners should keep th Southern faith and virtue and attempted to find a bright road for them. In The Bear, only by participating in social activities can they make their own virtue effective. From the ethical view, "The Bear" is about a story of ethical pursuit. Isaac McCaslin introspects ancestors'
the incest and the social
injustice for Blacks under the guidance of ethical ideology: all
men are equal. The protagonist pursuits his own identity and explores the essence, which reflects Faulkner were seeking the way to solve the social problems. The ethics is a
prerequisite for the survival of civilization.
Chapter Three Implication
The Influence of Faulkner's Ethics and Its
This chapter will focus on the discussion of moral ideal world in Faulkner's works . And the profound influence of the relationship between man and nature, and its enlightenment under globalization background will be presented in detail. 3.1 Building Spiritual Home for Ecological Harmony Faulkner once layed claim being "countryman in Ao Kesi Ford", which implies his love for the homeland. In the beginning of his writing career, Faulkner bought vast forest and a villa, and named the "Oak Hill". Faulkner is a good hunter. The nature is not the habitat of his soul but also his creative inspiration. The nature is widely described in Faulkner's works. The Bear as the most important part of a trilogy, the wildness is its highlight, in which nature is not only closely linked with personal survival but also has a deep ethical contact with the human. Faulkner stressed the respect for nature and the common development of the person and the nature so as to create a harmonious relationship of mutual promotion. Whereas, the ecological ethics corresponds with many scholars? ecological theory. Faulkner's predictability in The Bear is embodied in expressing his thought on the relationship between money and nature. Isaac McCaslin resisted on measuring the land value from the perspective of economic growth. He realized the wildness and nature is valuable for human ethics. In his view, the wilderness is Utopia for morality and both are inseparable. In history of McCaslin family, the dirty transactions between McCaslin's grandfather and Indian broke the traditional moral law and order. It can been seen that the loss of morality is the root of causing the tragedy of slavery incest. The hunt for the Old Ben symbolized the loss of reverence for the law of wilderness. After that, wildness became the object of obtaining economic benefits. Whereas, human's moral order has been challenged greatly. Consequently,the conflict between man and land is also a civil
war in America. Only by cultivating ethics for land can they resolve contradictions.
The Bear not only expresses the connotation of land ethics but also rethinks the relationship between natural and economic development. Under globalization background,, one of the major problems human faced is the relationship between human and nature. In the novel, the development of the southern economy is destroyed at the expense of the wilderness. Consequently, animals lost their shelter and humans lost spiritual home. Faulkner warned later generations like posterity that blindly pursuing economic development and ignoring the environment that may cause not only is the ecological deterioration, more seriously is that human civilization will eventually decline. Under globalization background, the development of science and technology has caused ecological crisis, which is increasingly becoming the concerned topic. From the perspective of ecological ethics, the ethical harmony between man and nature which advocated in The Bear provides an effective way for human to deal with the relationship between human and nature. 3.2 Constructing Ethical Environment of Freedom and Equality The writer created the wilderness where all things are equal and the supremacy of moral. Entering the wildness, people take off the fetters and camouflage secular. All of them advocate freedom and lofty moral. The old hunter Sam Fazes is the moral model. Moreover, the wildness is an ideal world. Faulkner made attempt to construct an ideal social relationship based on the negative crime of southern whites, which expressed his desire for building a harmonious social relationship. Before the War of Independence, the manor of slavery was the economic foundation in Southern America where racial hierarchical is strict and blacks slaves is the lords' the private property who can be arbitrarily sale and killed. Black women can be disposed by slave holders， who have never explained and hide their crimes. However, some white masters have realized the slavery is unreasonable. The first scenes is that he argued on racial quality with his nephew. Isaac admired the Negro's freedom: "those ancestors enjoy the free time being longer than us, because we are never free. He later said: "Sam Fadhesgen makes me free." Isaac McCaslin as the descendent of slave owners, he felt his heart upset. Bloodlines with grandfather let him
feel unbearable and guilty always bothered him. The rich heritage was ties with grandfather iniquity. He tried hard to get rid of the mental burden. The spirit supervisor made him brave, honorable and proud so that he found spiritual and spiritual sustenance. Freedom derived from the relief of guilt. Although we lost everything in the civil war, but the liberation of black is right, never regret, because the enormous burden of responsibility was removed. Faulkner's many works described similar characters: South family heir in the face of the sins of their ancestors, the pain was almost more than they could bear. In The Bear, Isaac McCaslin ruminated over the account books of his family, and finally realized the incest secret. In the fourth section, the description about psychological activities when Isaac knew the truth is not too much. However, he eventually made an unexpected decision: abandoning the family property and children and living in the wilderness alone. In Isaac's view, self-relief is a pious acts. Only being apart from the evil of human society can he achieve the peace and freedom of his soul. In The Bear, the writer vividly describes the who process of the America southern slave system from construction to disintegration. Through the tragic story about an incestuous, he let readers recognize the reason why the McCaslin family is from prosperity to decline. It led people to think about the rationality of ethical culture under American southern slavery: the moral crisis caused by inequality between people will gradually become a conscious reflection on civilization. Evil and greed will enable people to destruction. As Nie Zhenzhao said: "as long as a person living in society must be restricted by the ethical rules, otherwise you will be punished."" In The Bear, guilt derived from spirit punishment has destroyed the family even social beliefs. Faulkner in his The Bear" emphasized virtue frequently, he believed that virtue is the ultimate way to narrow the gap between people. However, the core of the ethics is to build a harmonious society of ethics. In the society, pursuing faith and virtue is the highest ideal for human being. Through analyzing Faulkner's The Bear from the perspective of ecological ethics, we recognize that Faulkner is a writer who has social responsibility. According to his view, the appeal of the virtues is writers' responsibility. It also reflects Faulkner's humanitarian spirit.
Understanding the upheaval of the American society is a prerequisite for the interpretation of The Bear. During the period of from the 1850s to the 1950s, the development of the industrialization and economy brought people much convenience. However, people paid slightest attention on the environment protection, which has caused great social problems and natural disaster for them. In order to build up environmental awareness, many scholars have proposed a variety of ideas. Arne Naess was a pioneer who has advocated ecological ethics. Meanwhile, with the rapid development of the society, many writers worry about the nature. Some writers proposed the idea in their works. Faulkner made an attempt to discover inherent values and interactions between man and nature. Ethical literary criticism has its profound historical and theoretical basis, which not only borrows the intrinsic spirit of Western Ethics Criticism but also inherits Chinese traditional literature. The method of ethical literary criticism provides a new perspective and possibility for the literary interpretation. The core connotation of literature ethics is the ethical relationship between man and man, man and nature, and man and society. It aims to reveal the ethical connotations of works and expect to establish harmonious interpersonal and social order. Consequently, the literary function of social responsibility is conspicuous. Literature is not only the aesthetic object but also a way to achieve the meliorative social morality and the normative human behavior. In the process of interpretation, the researchers should combine comprehensively ethical connotation with literary aesthetic connotation. In The Bear, Faulkner created a mora Utopia, namely, wilderness. American southern forest is as fair and mysterious as the primeval forest,which full of romantic and poetic atmosphere. In regard of this, the writer created the harmonious and orderly wildness. The rich ethics connotation in The Bear are inspirational to us. Nowadays, environmental ethic has became more and more complex, we search the ethics that coexisting harmoniously, and maintaining difference so as to meet the social demand. The typical ethical environment in The Bear has gone, the ethical
connotations has such implications as equality, freedom, mutual caring and
harmonious relationship between human and nature. It is not only an essential factor for individual happiness and prosperity of their families but also the guarantee for harmonious social. The interpretation of literary works from the perspective of ecological ethics, which arouses people's attention to the value of ethics. Ecological ethics will benefit the construction of spiritual civilization harmonious society.
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